It goes back a long way: This version was printed in Australia in 1917:
Northern Territory Times and Gazette (Darwin, NT : 1873 - 1927) Thursday 19 July 1917 [photo of the newspaper printing, page 34]
JUST AS MOTHER USED TO DO.
He criticised her puddings, and he didn't like her cake; He wished she'd make some biscuits like his mother used to make; She didn't wash the dishes and she didn't make a stew, And she didn't mend his stockings, as his mother used to do. Ah, well! She wasn't perfect, though she tried to do her best Until at length she thought her time had come to have a rest; So, when one day he went the same old rigamarole all through, She turned and boxed his ears, just like his mother used to do!
Understanding the Neurobiological Mechanisms of Mindfulness
mindfulness through meditation has helped people maintain a healthy mind by
quelling negative emotions and thoughts, such as desire, anger and anxiety, and
encouraging more positive dispositions such as compassion, empathy and forgiveness.
Those who have reaped the benefits of mindfulness know that it works. But how
exactly does it work?
at Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH) have proposed a new model that shifts how
we think about mindfulness.Rather than
describing mindfulness as a single dimension of cognition, the researchers
demonstrate that mindfulness actually involves a broad framework of complex
mechanisms in the brain.
essence, they have laid out the science behind mindfulness.
researchers identified several cognitive functions that are active in the brain
during mindfulness practice. These cognitive functions help a person develop
self-awareness, self-regulation, and self-transcendence (S-ART) which make up
the transformative framework for the mindfulness process.
S-ART framework explains the underlying neurobiological mechanisms by which
mindfulness can facilitate self-awareness; reduce biases and negative thoughts;
enhance the ability to regulate one's behavior; and increase positive,
pro-social relationships with oneself and others-all-in-all creating a
sustainable healthy mind.
researchers highlight six neuropsychological processes that are active
mechanisms in the brain during mindfulness and which support S-ART. These
processes include 1) intention and motivation, 2) attention regulation, 3)
emotion regulation, 4) extinction and reconsolidation, 5) pro-social behavior,
and 6) non-attachment and de-centering.
other words, these processes begin with an intention and motivation to want to
attain mindfulness, followed by an awareness of one's bad habits. Once these
are set, a person can begin taming him or herself to be less emotionally
reactive and to recover faster from upsetting emotions.
continued practice, the person can develop a psychological distance from any
negative thoughts and can inhibit natural impulses that constantly fuel bad
habits," said David Vago, PhD, BWH Functional Neuroimaging Laboratory,
Department of Psychiatry, and lead study author.
also states that continued practice can also increase empathy and eliminate our
attachments to things we like and aversions to things we don't like.
result of practice is a new You with a new multidimensional skill set for
reducing biases in one's internal and external experience and sustaining a
healthy mind," said Vago.
S-ART framework and neurobiological model proposed by the researchers differs
from current popular descriptions of mindfulness as a way of paying attention,
in the present moment, non-judgmentally. With the help of functional MRI, Vago
and his team are currently testing the model in humans.
research was supported by the Mind and Life Institute, Impact Foundation, and
the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine at the National
Institutes of Health (5-R21AT002209-02).
research was published online 25 October 2012 in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience:
Vago DR, Silbersweig.
DA Self-awareness, self-regulation, and self-transcendence (S-ART): a
framework for understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness. Front
Hum Neurosci, 2012; 6 DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2012.00296
harian multivitamin boleh mengurangkan risiko kanser di kalangan
lelaki, menurut keputusan ujian secara rawak terbesar di Amerika
Syarikat Beberapa ujian vitamin
berasingan, diberi pada dos yang tinggi, tidak menunjukkan apa-apa
kesan terhadap pencegahan kanser. Kajian secara pengamatan juga
tidak menyediakan bukti hubungan antara penggunaan multivitamin dan
pengurangan insiden kanser atau kematian.
kajian semasa adalah unik dalam beberapa cara, yang pertama bahawa ia
adalah satu-satunya ujian plasebo terkawal berskala besar yang
menilai multivitamin dalam pencegahan kanser.
merupakan satu tempoh yang panjang dan doktor sendiri terlibat
sebagai subjek.Selepas kira-kira 11
tahun, penggunaan multivitamin mengakibatkan pengurangan yang
sederhana tetapi signifikan secara statistik – secara khusus,
pengurangan sebanyak 8% dalam keseluruhan kejadian kanser. Kajian
ini melibatkan 14,641 doktor lelaki AS berumur ≥ 50 tahun (min
umur, 64.3 tahun), termasuk 1,312 lelaki dengan sejarah kanser secara
random, mendaftar pada tahun 1997 dengan rawatan dan susulan hingga 1
Jun, 2011. Mereka menerima sama ada multivitamin jenama yang sama
(Centrum Silver) atau plasebo. Hasil utama adalah pengiraan jumlah
kanser (tidak termasuk kanser kulit non-melanoma), dengan prostat,
kolorektal, dan lain-lain kanser khusus di peringkat akhir kedua.
Semasa susulan pertengahan
dari 11.2 tahun:
• Terdapat 2,669 lelaki dengan kanser
disahkan, termasuk 1,373 kes kanser prostat dan 210 kes kanser
• Berbanding dengan plasebo, lelaki yang
mengambil multivitamin setiap hari mempunyai pengurangan ketara
secara statistik dalam jumlah terjadinya kanser (multivitamin dan
kumpulan plasebo, 17.0 dan 18.3 kejadian, masing-masing, setiap 1000
orang-setahun; nisbah bahaya [HR], 0.92, 95% CI, 0,86-0,998; p =
• Tiada kesan ketara pada
pengambilan harian multivitamin pada kanser prostat (multivitamin dan
kumpulan plasebo, 9.1 dan 9.2 acara masing-masing, setiap 1000
orang-setahun; 0,98; 0,88-1,09; p = 0.76), kanser kolorektal
(multivitamin dan kumpulan plasebo , 1.2 dan 1.4 kejadian,
masing-masing, setiap 1000 orang-setahun; 0,89; 0,68-1,17; p = 0.39),
atau kanser khusus yang lain.
• Tiada perbezaan yang
ketara dalam risiko kematian kanser (multivitamin dan kumpulan
plasebo, 4.9 dan 5.6 masing-masing, setiap 1000 orang-setahun ; 0,88;
0,77-1,01; p = 0.07).
multivitamin harian telah dikaitkan dengan pengurangan jumlah dalam
kanser di kalangan 1,312 lelaki dengan sejarah awal kanser (0.73;
,56-0,96; p = 0.02), tetapi tidak berbeza secara ketara di kalangan
13,329 lelaki yang pada mulanya tanpa kanser (0,94; 0,87-1,02; p =
0.15; p bagi interaksi = 0.07).Pengurangan
dalam Jumlah Kanser
"Mesej utama kami
mengambil multivitamin adalah disebabkan kekurangan nutrisi tetapi
ia pastinya kelihatan bahawa mungkin ada manfaat sederhana dalam
mencegah kanser di kalangan lelaki berusia lebih 50 tahun," kata
pengarang John Michael Gaziano.
# # #
Kajian ini juga
telah diterbitkan secara dalam talian pada 17hb Oktober 2012, di
Journal of the American Medical
Gaziano JM, Sesso HD,
Christen WG, Bubes V, Smith JP, MacFadyen J, Schvartz M, Manson JE,
Glynn RJ, Buring JE. Multivitamins in the Prevention of Cancer in
MenThe Physicians' Health Study II Randomized Controlled Trial .
JAMA. 2012;():1-10. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.14641.
a bad day? Extending your normal exercise routine by a few minutes may be the
solution, according to Penn State researchers, who found that people's
satisfaction with life was higher on days when they exercised more than usual.
findings reinforce the idea that physical activity is a health behavior with
important consequences for daily well-being and should be considered when
developing national policies to enhance satisfaction with life," said
Jaclyn Maher, graduate student in kinesiology.
team examined the influence of physical activity on satisfaction with life among
emerging adults ages 18 to 25 years because this population's sense of
well-being appears to worsen more quickly than at any other time during
adults are going through a lot of changes; they are leaving home for the first
time and attending college or starting jobs," said Maher. "As a
result, their satisfaction with life can plummet. We decided to focus on
emerging adults because they stand to benefit the most from strategies to
enhance satisfaction with life."
researchers recruited two groups of college students at Penn State. The first
group, consisting of 190 individuals, entered information into a diary every
day for eight days. The second group, consisting of 63 individuals, entered
information into a secure website every day for 14 days. Both groups answered
questions aimed at determining participants' satisfaction with life, physical
activity and self-esteem. The personalities of all participants in the first
group were assessed at the outset of the study using the Big Five Inventory
the second group (the 63 individuals who filled out questionnaires online for
14 days), the researchers wanted to further investigate whether physical
activity was indeed, the cause of participants' increased satisfaction with life
rather than some other factor such as mental health, fatigue, or Body Mass
in depression, anxiety and stress would be expected to influence a person's
satisfaction with life at any given point in time," said David Conroy,
professor of kinesiology. "In addition, fatigue can be a barrier to
engaging in physical activity, and a high Body Mass Index associated with being
overweight may cause a person to be less satisfied in a variety of ways."
controlling for these variables, the researchers were able to determine that
the amount of physical activity a person undertakes in a particular day
directly influences his or her satisfaction with life. Specifically, the team
found that by exercising just a little more than usual a person can significantly
improve his or her satisfaction with life.
on these findings, we recommend that people exercise a little longer or a
little harder than usual as a way to boost satisfaction with life," said
above story is based on the October 25, 2012 news release by Pennsylvania State University
results of the research appeared online October 22, 2012 ahead of print in the journal
JP, Doerksen SE, Elavsky S, Hyde AL, Pincus AL, Ram N, Conroy DE. A Daily Analysis of Physical Activity and
Satisfaction With Life in Emerging Adults.Health Psychol. 2012; DOI: 10.1037/a0030129
at The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research have discovered that a bean
commonly used in Chinese cuisine protects against the life-threatening
has been found that a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) protein, HMGB1, mediates
inflammation. Inflammation is necessary for maintaining good health – without
inflammation, wounds and infections would never heal. However, persistent and
constant inflammation can damage tissue and organs, and lead to diseases such
is a potentially life-threatening complication of an infection or injury, and
occurs when chemicals released into the bloodstream to fight the infection
trigger inflammation throughout the body. The result is that organs become
damaged, including liver, heart, lungs, kidney, and brain. If excessive damage
occurs, it may be irreversible. Therefore, it is important to identify ways in
which persistent and constant inflammation can be halted.
the protein HMGB1 protects against persistent and constant inflammation that
results in damage to tissue and organs. Haichao Wang, PhD, and his colleagues,
including Shu Zhu, MD and PhD, and Andrew E. Sama, MD, at the Feinstein
Institute found that extract from mung bean (Vigna radiata), a bean native to
India and commonly used in Chinese food and traditional medicine, reduced the
release of HMGB1, thereby increasing survival rates in mice from 29.4 percent
to 70 percent (P < 0.05).
traditional medicinal herbs have been successfully developed into effective
therapies for various inflammatory ailments, and now we have validated the
therapeutic potential of another medicinal product, mung bean extract,” said
Dr. Wang. “Demonstrating that mung bean extract has a positive effect on septic
mice shows promise that this bean can also have a positive effect on septic
humans – of course, additional studies are required to prove the safe and
effective use in humans.”
above story is based on the Octiber 26, 2012 news release by North Shore-Long
Island Jewish (LIJ) Health System.
findings are published in the current issue of Evidence-based Complementary and
Alternative Medicine (eCAM):
Zhu, Wei Li, Jianhua Li, Arvin Jundoria, Andrew E. Sama, Haichao Wang. It Is
Not Just Folklore: The Aqueous Extract of Mung Bean Coat Is Protective against
Sepsis. Evid. Based Complement. Alternat.
Med., 2012; 2012: 1 DOI: 10.1155/2012/498467
daily use of multivitamins may reduce the risk for cancer in men, according to
the results of a very large randomized trial in the US
A number of trials of individual vitamins, administered at high doses,
have not shown any effect at preventing cancer. Observational studies have also
not provided evidence of an association between multivitamin use and a reduction
in cancer incidence or mortality.
However, the current study is unique in a
number of ways, the first being that it is the only large-scale
placebo-controlled trial evaluating a multivitamin in the prevention of cancer.
It is also of long duration and involved
physicians themselves as the subject.
about 11 years, multivitamin use resulted in a modest but statistically
significant reduction — specifically, an 8% reduction in total cancer
The study involved 14,641 male US
physicians initially aged ≥50 years (mean age, 64.3 years), including 1312 men with
a history of cancer at randomisation, enrolled in 1997 with treatment and
follow-up through to June 1, 2011. They received either daily exact same brand multivitamin
(Centrum Silver) or placebo. The main outcome measures were total cancer
(excluding non-melanoma skin cancer), with prostate, colorectal, and other
site-specific cancers among the secondary end points.
During a median follow-up of 11.2 years:
• There were 2669 men with confirmed
cancer, including 1373 cases of prostate cancer and 210 cases of colorectal cancer.
• Compared with placebo, men taking a daily
multivitamin had a statistically significant reduction in the incidence of
total cancer (multivitamin and placebo groups, 17.0 and 18.3 events,
respectively, per 1000 person-years; hazard ratio [HR], 0.92; 95% CI, 0.86 to
• There was no significant effect of a
daily multivitamin on prostate cancer (multivitamin and placebo groups, 9.1 and
9.2 events, respectively, per 1000 person-years; 0.98; 0.88 to 1.09; p=0.76),
colorectal cancer (multivitamin and placebo groups, 1.2 and 1.4 events,
respectively, per 1000 person-years; 0.89; 0.68 to 1.17; p=0.39), or other
• There was no significant difference in
the risk of cancer mortality (multivitamin and placebo groups, 4.9 and 5.6
events, respectively, per 1000 person-years; 0.88;, 0.77 to 1.01; p=0.07).
• Daily multivitamin use was associated
with a reduction in total cancer among 1312 men with a baseline history of
cancer (0.73; 0.56 to 0.96; p=0.02), but this did not differ significantly from
that among 13,329 men initially without cancer (0.94; 0.87 to 1.02; p=0.15; p
in Total Cancers
"Our main message is that the main
reason to take a multivitamin is for nutritional deficiencies but it certainly
appears that there may be a modest benefit in preventing cancer in men over the
age of 50," lead author John Michael Gaziano said.
The study has also been published online October
17, 2012 in the Journal of the American Medical Association Published:
Gaziano JM, Sesso HD, Christen WG, Bubes V,
Smith JP, MacFadyen J, Schvartz M, Manson JE, Glynn RJ, Buring JE. Multivitamins in the Prevention of Cancer
in MenThe Physicians' Health Study II Randomized Controlled Trial . JAMA. 2012;():1-10.
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