Saturday, July 28, 2012

Boosting New Memories With Wakeful Resting


Too often our memory starts acting like a particularly porous sieve: all the important fragments that should be caught and preserved somehow just disappear.

So armed with pencils and bolstered by caffeine, legions of adults, especially older adults, tackle crossword puzzles, acrostics, Sudoku and a host of other activities designed to strengthen their flagging memory muscles.

But maybe all we really need to do to cement new learning is to sit and close their eyes for a few minutes. 

“Memory can be boosted by taking a brief wakeful rest after learning something verbally new—so keep the pencil for phone numbers– and that memory lasts not just immediately but over a longer term,” says psychological scientist Michaela Dewar and her colleagues at the University of Edinburgh.

“Our findings support the view that the formation of new memories is not completed within seconds,” adds Dewar. “Indeed our work demonstrates that activities that we are engaged in for the first few minutes after learning new information really affect how well we remember this information after a week.”

In two separate experiments, a total of thirty-three normally aging adults between the ages of 61 and 87 were told two short stories and told to remember as many details as possible; one story was followed by a 10-min period of wakeful resting, and the other was followed by a 10-min period during which participants played a spot-the-difference game.

In Experiment 1, wakeful resting led to significant enhancement of memory after a 15- to 30-min period and also after 7 days.

In Experiment 2, this striking enhancement of memory 7 days after learning was demonstrated even when no retrievals were imposed in the interim.

Participants remembered much more story material when the story presentation had been followed by a period of wakeful resting.

The bottom line: In a world where we're bombarded with crazy amounts of new information, the best advice for holding onto these memories is a little peace and quiet.


The above story is based on the July 23, 2012 news release by Association for Psychological Science (APS)

The research is published in the APS journal Psychological Science:

Dewar, M., Alber, J., Butler, C., Cowan, N., & Della Sala, S. (in press). Brief wakeful resting boosts new memories over the long term. Psychological Science, 2012
Published online before print July 24, 2012, doi: 10.1177/0956797612441220

Dietary supplements and hypertension: potential benefits and precautions


Dietary supplements are used extensively in the general population and many are promoted for the natural treatment and management of hypertension.

Coenzyme Q10, Fish Oil, Garlic, and Vitamin C

In a review of the many dietary supplements promoted for the management of hypertension, pharmacists in Atlanta and Mississippi found coenzyme Q10, fish oil, garlic, and vitamin C with evidence of possible benefits.

They also identified 4 products that were consistently associated with increasing blood pressure (ephedra, Siberian ginseng, bitter orange, licorice).


CoQ10 has been shown in two studies to further reduce both systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) after 8 weeks when added to conventional antihypertensive agents. SBP was reduced by 17.8 mm Hg in the treatment group and 1.7 mm Hg in the placebo group.

Another study showed when CoQ10 was administered to patients with essential hypertension for 10 weeks, a statistically significant decrease in both SBP and DBP was noted.

In the fourth study CoQ10 doses were adjusted to achieve a serum concentration of ≥2.0 μg/mL. Participants were followed for 1 year or longer, with dose adjustments made on a monthly basis if needed. Statistically significant decreases in both SBP and DBP were noted.

Fish Oil

In a parallel designed trial of normotensive and hypertensive men, participants were randomized to receive either fish oil (eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid) or placebo for 4 months followed by a 2-month washout period and reassessment. No significant BP change was noted in either group of normotensive participants. In the fish oil hypertensive group, average SBP decreased by 6 mm Hg and DBP by 5 mm Hg during the treatment period and then returned to baseline after the 2-month washout.15

Another team of researchers examined the effects of fish oil in obese, hypertensive, and dyslipidemic participants with and without diabetes over 13 weeks. Participants also started the American Heart Association Step I diet. Both groups had statistically significant reductions in both SBP and DBP.16


In a 12-week trial, researchers demonstrated statistically significant reductions in both supine and standing SBP and DBP with garlic supplementation. However, despite a long history of use, the efficacy of garlic in hypertension is still debated.

Many of the concerns are the same as with other DSs: product inconsistencies, lack of standardization, variable formulations, and questionable study design and quality. Given the wide variation of products used and other limitations of the existing evidence, it is difficult to make a definitive recommendation for the use of garlic in the treatment of hypertension.

Vitamin C

A one-time loading dose of 2 g of ascorbic acid followed by 500 mg daily for 1 month achieved a significant 13-mm Hg reduction in SBP, but not DBP in participants.

After receiving 200 mg of ascorbic acid 3 times daily for 6 months, a statistically significant reduction (approx. 20mm Hg) in SBP was demonstrated in elderly patients (65 years and older) with drug refractory hypertension compared with younger adults (younger than 65 years) who failed to show a significant BP reduction.

These findings are of interest, although the limited data, product inconsistencies, lack of standardization, variable formulations prevent global recommendations on the efficacy of these DS in the treatment of hypertension.

Consumers must be reminded that they should not consume DS without the supervision of a medical doctor or pharmacist.



Rasmussen CB, Glisson JK, Minor DS. Dietary supplements and hypertension: potential benefits and precautions. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2012 Jul;14(7):467-71. 2012; 14:467-471.

You can read the full text HERE

Vitamin D supplement

A selection of Vit C, Garlic, CoEnzyme Q10 and Fish Oil

Lower Vitamin D Could Increase Risk of Dying, Especially for Frail, Older Adults


About 70 percent of Americans, and up to a billion people worldwide, have insufficient levels of vitamin D. OSU's Linus Pauling Institute recommends adults take 2,000 IU of supplemental vitamin D daily. The current federal guidelines are 600 IU for most adults, and 800 for those older than 70.

A new study concludes that among older adults -- especially those who are frail* -- low levels of vitamin D can mean a much greater risk of death.

Overall, the randomized, nationally representative study found that people who were frail had more than double the risk of death than those who were not frail. Frail adults with low levels of vitamin D tripled their risk of death over people who were not frail and who had higher levels of vitamin D.

"What this really means is that it is important to assess vitamin D levels in older adults, and especially among people who are frail," said lead author Ellen Smit.

Smit said past studies have separately associated frailty and low vitamin D with a greater mortality risk, but this is the first to look at the combined effect.

"Older adults need to be screened for vitamin D," said Smit, who is a nutritional epidemiologist at Oregon State University  (OSU) College of Public Health and Human Sciences. Her research is focused on diet, metabolism, and physical activity in relation to both chronic disease and HIV infection.

"As you age, there is an increased risk of melanoma, but older adults should try and get more activity in the sunshine," she said. "Our study suggests that there is an opportunity for intervention with those who are in the pre-frail group, but could live longer, more independent lives if they get proper nutrition and exercise."

Because of the cross-sectional nature of the survey, researchers could not determine if low vitamin D contributed to frailty, or whether frail people became vitamin D deficient because of health problems. However, Smit said the longitudinal analysis on death showed it may not matter which came first.

"If you have both, it may not really matter which came first because you are worse off and at greater risk of dying than other older people who are frail and who don't have low vitamin D," she said. "This is an important finding because we already know there is a biological basis for this. Vitamin D impacts muscle function and bones, so it makes sense that it plays a big role in frailty."

This study examined more than 4,300 adults older than 60 using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants were divided people into four groups. The low group had levels less than 50 nanograms per milliliter; the highest group had vitamin D of 84 or higher. In general, those who had lower vitamin D levels were more likely to be frail.

"We want the older population to be able to live as independent for as long as possible, and those who are frail have a number of health problems as they age," Smit said. "A balanced diet including good sources of vitamin D like milk and fish, and being physically active outdoors, will go a long way in helping older adults to stay independent and healthy for longer."
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*Frailty is when a person experiences a decrease in physical functioning characterized by at least three of the following five criteria: muscle weakness, slow walking, exhaustion, low physical activity, and unintentional weight loss. People are considered "pre-frail" when they have one or two of the five criteria.

The above story is based on the July 26, 2012 news release by Oregon State University.

The research has been published ahead of print June 13, 2012 in the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition:

Smit E, Crespo CJ, Michael Y, Ramirez-Marrero FA, Brodowicz GR, Bartlett S, Andersen RE. The effect of vitamin D and frailty on mortality among non-institutionalized US older adults. Eur J Clin Nutr., 2012; DOI: 10.1038/ejcn.2012.67

Stiff Gins 'Yandool'

Uploaded by on Jun 30, 2011

The debut filmclip from Stiff Gins, for Yandool, the opening track from the 2011 release 'Wind & Water' (released through Gadigal Music, distributed by MGM and published by Source Music). The song is sung in Wiradjuri.

The Wiradjuri people were known as the people of the three rivers: the Wambool (now known as the Macquarie River), the Kalari (the Lachlan River, from which the electorate takes its name) and the Murrumbidjeri (the Murrumbidgee River).

Thursday, July 26, 2012

High Dietary Antioxidant Intake Might Cut Pancreatic Cancer Risk

New research suggests that increasing dietary intake of the antioxidant vitamins C, E, and seleniumcould help cut the risk of developing pancreatic cancer by up to two thirds.

Cancer of the pancreas kills more than a quarter of a million people every year around the world. A total of 21,773 pancreatic cancer cases were diagnosed among Malaysians in Peninsular Malaysia in the year 2006 and constituted 1.16% of total cancers registered in the National Cancer Registry(NCR). The incidence among the Malaysian Chinese was higher than in Indians and Malays*. 

The disease has the worst prognosis of any cancer, with just 3% of people surviving beyond five years. Genes, smoking, and type 2 diabetes are all risk factors, but diet is also thought to have a role, and may explain why rates vary so much from country to country, say the authors.

The researchers, who are leading the Norfolk arm of the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC) study, tracked the health of more than 23,500 40 to 74 year olds, who had entered the Norfolk arm of the EPIC study between 1993 and 1997.

Participants completed 7-day food diaries which recorded foods, brands and portion sizes. Nutrient intakes were calculated in those later diagnosed with pancreatic cancer and in 3970 controls, using a computer program with information on 11 000 foods.

Within 10 years, 49 participants (55% men), developed pancreatic cancer. Those eating a combination of the highest three quartiles of all of vitamins C and E and selenium had a decreased risk

The analysis showed that a weekly intake of selenium in the top 25% of consumption roughly halved their risk of developing pancreatic cancer compared with those whose intake was in the bottom 25%.

And those whose vitamins C, E, and selenium intake was in the top 25% of consumption were 67% less likely to develop pancreatic cancer than those who were in the bottom 25%.

If the link turns out to be causal, that would add up to the prevention of more than one in 12 (8%) of pancreatic cancers, calculate the authors.

Antioxidants may neutralise the harmful by-products of metabolism and normal cell activity—free radicals—and curb genetically programmed influences, as well as stimulating the immune system response, explain the authors.

Other trials using antioxidant supplements have not produced such encouraging results, but this may be because food sources of these nutrients may behave differently from those found in supplements, they say.

"If a causal association is confirmed by reporting consistent findings from other epidemiological studies, then population based dietary recommendations may help to prevent pancreatic cancer," they conclude.


The above story is based on the July 23, 2012 news release by the BMJ-British Medical Journal.

The research has been published online July 23, 2012 in The Gut, an international journal of gastroenterology & hepatology:

Banim PJR, Luben R, McTaggart A, Welch A, Wareham N, Khaw K, Hart AR. Dietary antioxidants and the aetiology of pancreatic cancer: a cohort study using data from food diaries and biomarkers. Gut doi:10.1136/gutjnl-2011-301908

Read the full paper HERE.

*The NCR cautions the reader that for this cancer, the registration of cases was incomplete. In other words, the incidence statistic reported here are lower than the true incidence in the population

What is Pancreatic Cancer?
The pancreas is a large organ located behind the stomach. It makes and releases enzymes into the intestines that help the body absorb foods, especially fats.

Hormones called insulin and glucagon, which help your body control blood sugar levels, are made in special cells in the pancreas called islet cells. Tumors can also occur in these cells, but they are called islet cell tumors.

The exact cause of pancreatic cancer is unknown. It is more common in:
  • People with diabetes
  • People with long-term inflammation of the pancreas (chronic pancreatitis)
  • Smokers
Pancreatic cancer is slightly more common in men than in women. The risk increases with age. A small number of cases are related to genetic syndromes that are passed down through families.

Can pancreatic cancer be prevented?
There is no sure way to prevent cancer of the pancreas at this time. For now, the best advice is to avoid smoking, the major risk factor that you can change. Tobacco use also increases the risk of many other cancers such as cancers of the lung, mouth, larynx (voice box), esophagus, kidney, bladder, and some other organs.

Staying at a healthy weight, eating well, and exercising are also important.
  • If you smoke, stop smoking.
  • Eat a diet high in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
  • Exercise regularly.
Click HERE for more information on pancreatic cancer from the Amercian Cancer Society.

To supplement your dietary intake of antioxidants A, C, E & Selenium

What should I do if someone is choking?


Someone sent us this satire:

“A guy was eating in a gerai mamak. In an oversight, he swallows a coin and chokes.

His wife tries hitting his back, slapping on the neck, shaking him hard without any success to make him spit the coin.

Now the guy begins to show signs of choking - turning blue. The desperate wife starts screaming for help.

A man gets up from a nearby table, and with astonishing confidence, without saying a word, he lowers the guy's pants, squeezes his testicles and pulls them down violently!

Naturally, the guy with irresistible pain spits out the coin. 

The gentleman with the same astonishing ease & tranquility returns to his table of roti canai, teh tarik and cigar set next to a Porsche Cayenne.

Soon the wife calms down & approaches the gentleman to thank him for saving her husband's life.

She asks: Tuan, are you a doctor?

No, puan, I am from the BN. We are trained to squeeze the balls of the Rakyat to make them cough up the last cent.”

We wish to reassure the BN that our intention in reproducing this satire is apolitical; we think it is a good opportunity for us to publicise the advice given by the National Health Service of the United Kingdom on what you should do if someone is choking?

So here we go!

If someone is choking, you need to assess the situation quickly to see how best you can help.

This information applies to adults and children over one year old. If you want advice for babies under one year old, see What should I do if a baby is choking?

Choking happens when someone’s airway suddenly gets blocked so they cannot breathe. Their airway can be partly or fully blocked. In adults, choking is usually caused by food getting stuck. In children and babies, it can be caused if they put small objects in their mouths that then get stuck.

Assessing the situation

The best way to help depends on how serious the situation is and whether the person choking is:

Mild choking in adults and children over one year old

If the airway is only partly blocked, the person will usually be able to speak, cry, cough or breathe. In situations like this, an adult or child over one year old will usually be able to clear the blockage themselves.

To help with mild choking in an adult or child over one year old:

  • Encourage the person to keep coughing to try and clear the blockage.
  • Remove any obvious blockage from their mouth, using your first two fingers and thumb to grasp the object.

Be ready to help in case their airway becomes fully blocked or the choking becomes severe. 

Severe choking in adults and children over one year old

Where choking is severe, the person will not be able to speak, cry, cough or breathe. Without help, they will eventually become unconscious.

To help an adult or child over one year old who is choking severely:

  • Stand slightly behind the person to one side. If you’re right-handed, stand to the left. If you’re left-handed, stand to the right.
  • Support their chest with one hand. Lean the person forward so that the object blocking their airway will come out of their mouth, rather than going further down.
  • Give up to five sharp blows between the person’s shoulder blades with the heel of your hand. (The heel is between the palm of your hand and your wrist.)
  • Stop after each blow to check if the blockage has cleared.
  • If not, give up to five abdominal thrusts (see below).
  • Stop after each thrust to check if the blockage has cleared.

If the person’s airway is still blocked after three cycles of back blows and abdominal thrusts, you should send for help:

  • If someone else is with you, send them to dial 999 (or 112) for an ambulance immediately.
  • If you are alone, dial 999 (or 112) for an ambulance immediately, then return to help the person.
  • Continue with the cycles of back blows and abdominal thrusts until help arrives.

If you have any doubt that the person is breathing normally and you have been trained to do so, you should begin external chest compressions and rescue breaths. Together these are called cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR).

Important: procedures such as CPR can cause injury. You should not attempt CPR unless you have been trained. See Further information below to find out about learning first aid skills.

Abdominal thrusts: adults and children over one year old only

Abdominal thrusts are an emergency technique for clearing a blockage from the airway of an adult or child over one year old who is choking. They are also known as the Heimlich manoeuvre.

Important: Do not use abdominal thrusts with babies under one year old, pregnant women or people who are obese.

  1. Stand behind the person who is choking.
  2. Place your arms around their waist and bend them well forward.
  3. Clench your fist and place it right above the person's navel (belly button).
  4. Place your other hand on top, then thrust both hands backwards into their stomach with a hard, upward movement.
  5. Repeat this until the object stuck in their throat comes out of their mouth.


Once the person’s airway is cleared, parts of the material that caused the choking can sometimes remain and can cause complications later. If the person still has a persistent cough, difficulty swallowing, or feels as though something is still stuck in their throat, they need to see a health professional urgently. You should take the person to A&E, an NHS Walk-in centre or their GP if it’s during GP hours.

Abdominal thrusts can cause serious injuries. Where this potentially life-saving treatment has been necessary, a health professional such as your GP or a doctor in A&E should always examine the person afterwards.

Further information:

Sunday, July 22, 2012

Tokotrienol Untuk Pertumbuhan Semula Rambut

Satu kajian terbaru yang diketuai oleh Prof Yuen Kah Hay dari Pusat Pengajian Sains Farmasi, Universiti Sains Malaysia mendapati suplemen kapsul tokotrienol dapat meningkatkan bilangan rambut sukarelawan yang mengalami keguguran rambut berbanding dengan kumpulan plasebo.

Dua puluh satu sukarelawan secara rawak telah menerima secara oral 100 mg campuran tokotrienol setiap hari manakala 17 sukarelawan lagi telah ditugaskan untuk menerima kapsul plasebo secara oral.

Sukarelawan telah dipantau untuk mengetahui bilangan rambut di kawasan kulit kepala yang telah ditentukan serta berat 20 helai keratan rambut sepanjang 1 cm pada 0 (sebelum suplemen), 4 dan 8 bulan.

Bilangan rambut sukarelawan dalam kumpulan suplemen tokotrienol meningkat dengan ketara berbanding dengan kumpulan plasebo, dengan peningkatan sebanyak 34.5% pada akhir suplemen bulan ke 8 berbanding dengan penurunan sebanyak 0.1% bagi kumpulan plasebo.

Walau bagaimanapun, berat kumulatif sebanyak 20 helai keratan rambut tidak banyak berbeza dari permulaan untuk kedua-dua kumpulan suplemen pada akhir tempoh kajian.

Pesakit alopecia umumnya menunjukkan tahap antioksidan yang lebih rendah di kawasan kulit kepala mereka serta indeks peroksidaan lipid yang lebih tinggi.

Tokotrienol termasuk dalam keluarga vitamin E dan dikenali sebagai antioksidan yang kuat. Kesan yang diperhatikan dalam kajian ini adalah yang paling mungkin kerana aktiviti antioksidan tokotrienol yang membantu untuk mengurangkan pengoksidaan lipid dan stres oksidatif pada kulit kepala, yang dilaporkan ada kaitan dengan alopecia.

Lim AB, Wong JW, Yuen KH. Effects of Tocotrienol Supplementation on Hair Growth in Human Volunteers. Tropical Life Sciences Research, 21(2), 91–99, 2010

Kuasa Tocotrienol bertambah dengan pengunaan losyen minoxidil dan pembersih kulit kepala Hairpro

Minoxidil menggalakkan folikel rambut yang mengecut untuk menambah saiz mereka dan membantu pertumbuhan semula rambut menjadi kelihatan lebih tebal dari masa ke semasa.
Minoxidil telah diperkenalkan pada awal tahun 1970 sebagai rawatan untuk hipertensi. Hypertrichosis adalah kesan sampingan yang sama pada mereka yang mengambil pil minoxidil dan termasuk pertumbuhan semula rambut pada lelaki botak. Ini membawa kepada pembangunan formulasi topikal minoxidil untuk rawatan androgenetik alopecia pada lelaki dan kemudiannya di kalangan wanita.

Dalam kajian terhadap haiwan, minoxidil topikal memendekkan Telogen, menyebabkan kemasukan pramatang folikel rambut tak aktif menjadi anagen, dan ia mungkin mempunyai tindakan yang sama pada manusia. Messenger dan Rundegren mengkaji tentang farmakologi minoxidil, dengan rujukan khusus kepada tindakan ke atas pertumbuhan rambut pada manusia.

Messenger AG, Rundegren J. Minoxidil: mechanisms of action on hair growth. British Journal of Dermatology 2004; 150: 186–194.
Klik DI SINI untuk membaca keseluruhan artikel.

Artikel ini diterjemahkan dari bahasa Inggeris oleh Ahli Farmasi Mahfuza Turman


Saturday, July 21, 2012

Vitamin E May Lower Liver Cancer Risk

High consumption of vitamin E either from diet or vitamin supplements may lower the risk of liver cancer, according to Wei Zhang of the Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, and colleagues

Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin which is considered an antioxidant and numerous experimental studies have suggested that vitamin E may prevent DNA damage.

Worldwide cases of liver cancer are on the rise, taking third place as the most common cause of cancer mortality in the world, the fifth most common cancer found in men and the seventh most common in women. Approximately 85 percent of liver cancers occur in developing nations, with 54 percent in China alone.

The liver is charged with performing more than 300 critical functions in the body; from cholesterol and glucose metabolism to clearing dangerous chemical and bacterial invaders before they can wreak cellular havoc. A diagnosis of liver cancer is frequently associated with early mortality and diminished quality of life.

The researchers analyzed data from a total of 132,837 individuals in China who were enrolled in the Shanghai Women’s Health Study (SWHS) from 1997-2000 or the Shanghai Men’s Health Study (SMHS) from 2002-2006, two population-based cohort studies jointly conducted by the Shanghai Cancer Institute and Vanderbilt University.

Using validated food-frequency questionnaires, the researchers conducted in-person interviews to gather data on study participants’ dietary habits. Participants were asked how often they ate some of the most commonly consumed foods in urban Shanghai and whether they took vitamin supplements.

The investigators then compared liver cancer risk among participants who had high intake of vitamin E with those who had low intake.

The analysis included 267 liver cancer patients (118 women and 149 men) who were diagnosed between two years after study enrollment and an average of 10.9 (SWHS) or 5.5 (SMHS) years of follow-up. Vitamin E intake from diet and vitamin E supplement use were both associated with a lower risk of liver cancer. This association was consistent among participants with and without self-reported liver disease or a family history of liver cancer.

“We found a clear, inverse dose-response relation between vitamin E intake and liver cancer risk,” the authors write, noting a small difference between men and women in the risk estimate, which is likely attributable to fewer liver cancer cases having occurred among male participants due to the shorter follow-up period.

“Overall, the take home message is that high intake of vitamin E either from diet or supplements was related to lower risk of liver cancer in middle-aged or older people from China,” said Xiao Ou Shu, M.D., Ph.D., professor of Medicine at the Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center.

Conversely, participants who had the highest vitamin C intake from supplements and who had a family history of liver cancer or self-reported liver disease were more likely to develop liver cancer. There was no link to liver cancer among participants who had the highest levels of vitamin C or other vitamins from food.


The above story is based on the July 18, 2012 news release  by Vanderbilt University Medical Center

The research was first published online July 17, 2012 in the Journal of the National  Cancer, a peer-reviewed medical journal by Oxford University Press:

Wei Zhang, Xiao-Ou Shu, Honglan Li, Gong Yang, Hui Cai, Bu-Tian Ji, Jing Gao, Yu-Tang Gao, Wei Zheng, and Yong-Bing Xiang. Vitamin Intake and Liver Cancer Risk: A Report From Two Cohort Studies in China. J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 2012; DOI: 10.1093/jnci/djs277

Currently, there is no vaccine to prevent hepatitis C infection

However, you can take steps to protect yourself from becoming infected with hepatitis C virus and to prevent passing the virus to others.

  • Don't share personal care items that might have blood on them, such as razors or toothbrushes
  • Avoid injected drugs or, for drug users, enter a treatment program
  • Never share needles, syringes, water, or "works" (equipment for intravenous drug use) and get vaccinated against hepatitis A and hepatitis B if you are a drug user
  • Consider the risks of getting tattoos or body piercings. You can get infected if the tools have someone else's blood on them or if the artist or piercer does not follow good health practices.
  • Don't donate blood, organs, or tissue if you have hepatitis C
  • Practice safer sex if you choose to have sex. Don't engage in unprotected sex with multiple partners or with any partner whose health status is uncertain. Sexual transmission between monogamous couples may occur, but the risk is low.

The U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases has more about hepatitis C.

The dose of Vitamin E in the above analysis is not mentioned but John Phillip, a health researcher and author, suggested 400 to 800 IU daily to benefit from lowered risk from liver cancer and chronic disease.

Vitamin E : Get more information HERE
  • Health Risks from Excessive Vitamin E 
  • Interactions with Medications 
  • Sources of Vitamin E 
  • Recommended Intakes