The active component of turmeric responsible for this activity, curcumin, was identified almost two centuries ago.
Modern science has revealed that curcumin mediates its effects by modulation of several important molecular targets, including transcription factors (e.g., NF-kappaB, AP-1, Egr-1, beta-catenin, and PPAR-gamma), enzymes (e.g., COX2, 5-LOX, iNOS, and hemeoxygenase-1), cell cycle proteins (e.g., cyclin D1 and p21), cytokines (e.g., TNF, IL-1, IL-6, and chemokines), receptors (e.g., EGFR and HER2), and cell surface adhesion molecules.
Because it can modulate the expression of these targets, curcumin is now being used to treat cancer, arthritis, diabetes, Crohn's disease, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, Alzheimer's disease, psoriasis, and other pathologies.
Extract from Shishodia S, Sethi G and Aggarwal BB’s “Curcumin: getting back to the roots” published in the Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005 Nov;1056:206-17.Photo : http://www.vuatkerala.org/